For example, to register a trademark on 16 February 2018, without colour in India and the European Union, for a class of goods, the total cost will be 1,698 Swiss francs [653 basic fees – 148 (one class in India) – 897 (one class in the European Union)] In 1966 and 1967, efforts were made to address this problem by creating a new treaty that would reflect the needs of the time and not the world of the 1890s , when the agreement was adopted. This led to the development of the Trademark Registration Treaty (TRT), which was adopted in Vienna in 1973 and came into force in 1980 with five States Parties, namely Burkina Faso, Congo, Gabon, the Soviet Union and Togo. Given that there were no other TRT memberships and that the number of registrations had been low since its inception, it was clear that the TRT would probably not have supplanted the Madrid agreement. The current registration of trademarks of the European Union or the United Kingdom can serve as a basis for international registration. The process of attacking the basic application or the basic record for this purpose is commonly referred to as a “central attack.” The Madrid Protocol mitigates the effects of a successful centralized attack by transforming international registration into a series of applications in each legal order designated by international registration, a process known as “transformation.” Although conversion is an expensive option as a last resort, the resulting applications will receive the registration date of the international registration as the filing date. The Madrid Convention on International Trademark Registration Protocol – the Madrid Protocol – is one of two contracts that include the Madrid system for international trademark registration. The protocol is a deposit contract and not a substantial harmonization treaty. It provides a branding route for brand owners — individuals and businesses — to protect their trademarks in several countries by applying to a single office, in a language, with a royalty rate, in a currency.